Show Mobile Notice Show All NotesHide All Notes

Mobile Notice

You appear to be on a device with a "narrow" screen width (*i.e.* you are probably on a mobile phone). Due to the nature of the mathematics on this site it is best views in landscape mode. If your device is not in landscape mode many of the equations will run off the side of your device (should be able to scroll to see them) and some of the menu items will be cut off due to the narrow screen width.

### Section 1.1 : Functions

In this section we’re going to make sure that you’re familiar with functions and function notation. Both will appear in almost every section in a Calculus class so you will need to be able to deal with them.

First, what exactly is a function? The simplest definition is an equation will be a function if, for any \(x\) in the domain of the equation (the domain is all the \(x\)’s that can be plugged into the equation), the equation will yield exactly one value of \(y\) when we evaluate the equation at a specific \(x\).

This is usually easier to understand with an example.

Example 1 Determine if each of the following are functions.

- \(y = {x^2} + 1\)
- \({y^2} = x + 1\)

Show All SolutionsHide All Solutions

a \(y = {x^2} + 1\) Show Solution

This first one is a function. Given an \(x\), there is only one way to square it and then add 1 to the result. So, no matter what value of \(x\) you put into the equation, there is only one possible value of \(y\) when we evaluate the equation at that value of \(x\).

b \({y^2} = x + 1\) Show Solution

The only difference between this equation and the first is that we moved the exponent off the \(x\) and onto the \(y\). This small change is all that is required, in this case, to change the equation from a function to something that isn’t a function.

To see that this isn’t a function is fairly simple. Choose a value of \(x\), say \(x = 3\) and plug this into the equation.

\[{y^2} = 3 + 1 = 4\]

Now, there are two possible values of \(y\) that we could use here. We could use \(y = 2\) or \(y = - 2\). Since there are two possible values of \(y\) that we get from a single \(x\) this equation isn’t a function.

Note that this only needs to be the case for a single value of \(x\) to make an equation not be a function. For instance, we could have used \(x = - 1\) and in this case, we would get a single \(y\) (\(y = 0\)). However, because of what happens at \(x = 3\) this equation will not be a function.

Next, we need to take a quick look at function notation. Function notation is nothing more than a fancy way of writing the \(y\) in a function that will allow us to simplify notation and some of our work a little.

Let’s take a look at the following function.

\[y = 2{x^2} - 5x + 3\]

Using function notation, we can write this as any of the following.

\[\begin{array}{ccc}\begin{aligned}f\left( x \right) & = 2{x^2} - 5x + 3 \\ h\left( x \right) & = 2{x^2} - 5x + 3 \\ w\left( x \right) & = 2{x^2} - 5x + 3 \end{aligned} &\hspace{0.75in} & \begin{aligned}g\left( x \right) & = 2{x^2} - 5x + 3\\ R\left( x \right) & = 2{x^2} - 5x + 3\\ y\left( x \right) & = 2{x^2} - 5x + 3\\ \end{aligned} \\ & \vdots & \end{array}\]

Recall that this is NOT a letter times \(x\), this is just a fancy way of writing \(y\).

So, why is this useful? Well let’s take the function above and let’s get the value of the function at \(x = -3\). Using function notation we represent the value of the function at \(x = -3\) as \(f\left( -3 \right)\). Function notation gives us a nice compact way of representing function values.

Now, how do we actually evaluate the function? That’s really simple. Everywhere we see an \(x\) on the right side we will substitute whatever is in the parenthesis on the left side. For our function this gives,

\[\begin{align*}f\left( { - 3} \right) & = 2{\left( { - 3} \right)^2} - 5\left( { - 3} \right) + 3\\ & = 2\left( 9 \right) + 15 + 3\\ & = 36\end{align*}\]

Let’s take a look at some more function evaluation.

Example 2 Given \(f\left( x \right) = - {x^2} + 6x - 11\) find each of the following.

- \(f\left( 2 \right)\)
- \(f\left( { - 10} \right)\)
- \(f\left( t \right)\)
- \(f\left( {t - 3} \right)\)
- \(f\left( {x - 3} \right)\)
- \(f\left( {4x - 1} \right)\)

Show All SolutionsHide All Solutions

a \(f\left( 2 \right)\) Show Solution

\[f\left( 2 \right) = - {\left( 2 \right)^2} + 6(2) - 11 = - 3\]

b \(f\left( { - 10} \right)\)Show Solution

\[f\left( { - 10} \right) = - {\left( { - 10} \right)^2} + 6\left( { - 10} \right) - 11 = - 100 - 60 - 11 = - 171\]

Be careful when squaring negative numbers!

c \(f\left( t \right)\) Show Solution

\[f\left( t \right) = - {t^2} + 6t - 11\]

Remember that we substitute for the \(x\)’s WHATEVER is in the parenthesis on the left. Often this will be something other than a number. So, in this case we put \(t\)’s in for all the \(x\)’s on the left.

d \(f\left( {t - 3} \right)\) Show Solution

\[f\left( {t - 3} \right) = - {\left( {t - 3} \right)^2} + 6\left( {t - 3} \right) - 11 = - {t^2} + 12t - 38\]

Often instead of evaluating functions at numbers or single letters we will have some fairly complex evaluations so make sure that you can do these kinds of evaluations.

e \(f\left( {x - 3} \right)\) Show Solution

\[f\left( {x - 3} \right) = - {\left( {x - 3} \right)^2} + 6\left( {x - 3} \right) - 11 = - {x^2} + 12x - 38\]

The only difference between this one and the previous one is that we changed the \(t\) to an \(x\). Other than that, there is absolutely no difference between the two! Don’t get excited if an \(x\) appears inside the parenthesis on the left.

f \(f\left( {4x - 1} \right)\) Show Solution

\[f\left( {4x - 1} \right) = - {\left( {4x - 1} \right)^2} + 6\left( {4x - 1} \right) - 11 = - 16{x^2} + 32x - 18\]

This one is not much different from the previous part. All we did was change the equation that we were plugging into the function.

All throughout a calculus course we will be finding roots of functions. A root of a function is nothing more than a number for which the function is zero. In other words, finding the roots of a function, \(g\left( x \right)\), is equivalent to solving

Example 3 Determine all the roots of \(f\left( t \right) = 9{t^3} - 18{t^2} + 6t\)

Show Solution

So, we will need to solve,

\[9{t^3} - 18{t^2} + 6t = 0\]

First, we should factor the equation as much as possible. Doing this gives,

\[3t\left( {3{t^2} - 6t + 2} \right) = 0\]

Next recall that if a product of two things are zero then one (or both) of them had to be zero. This means that,

\[\begin{align*}3t & = 0\hspace{0.5in}{\rm{OR,}}\\ 3{t^2} - 6t + 2 & = 0\end{align*}\]

From the first it’s clear that one of the roots must then be \(t = 0\). To get the remaining roots we will need to use the quadratic formula on the second equation. Doing this gives,

\[\begin{align*}t & = \frac{{ - \left( { - 6} \right) \pm \sqrt {{{\left( { - 6} \right)}^2} - 4\left( 3 \right)\left( 2 \right)} }}{{2\left( 3 \right)}}\\ & = \frac{{6 \pm \sqrt {12} }}{6}\\ & = \frac{{6 \pm \sqrt {\left( 4 \right)\left( 3 \right)} }}{6}\\ & = \frac{{6 \pm 2\sqrt 3 }}{6}\\ & = \frac{{3 \pm \sqrt 3 }}{3}\\ & = 1 \pm \frac{1}{3}\sqrt 3 \\ & = 1 \pm \frac{1}{{\sqrt 3 }}\end{align*}\]

In order to remind you how to simplify radicals we gave several forms of the answer.

To complete the problem, here is a complete list of all the roots of this function.

\[t = 0,\,\,t = \frac{{3 + \sqrt 3 }}{3},\,\,\,t = \frac{{3 - \sqrt 3 }}{3}\]

Note we didn’t use the final form for the roots from the quadratic. This is usually where we’ll stop with the simplification for these kinds of roots. Also note that, for the sake of the practice, we broke up the compact form for the two roots of the quadratic. You will need to be able to do this so make sure that you can.

This example had a couple of points other than finding roots of functions.

The first was to remind you of the quadratic formula. This won’t be the last time that you’ll need it in this class.

The second was to get you used to seeing “messy” answers. In fact, the answers in the above example are not really all that messy. However, most students come out of an Algebra class very used to seeing only integers and the occasional “nice” fraction as answers.

So, here is fair warning. In this class I often will intentionally make the answers look “messy” just to get you out of the habit of always expecting “nice” answers. In “real life” (whatever that is) the answer is rarely a simple integer such as two. In most problems the answer will be a decimal that came about from a messy fraction and/or an answer that involved radicals.

One of the more important ideas about functions is that of the **domain** and **range** of a function. In simplest terms the domain of a function is the set of all values that can be plugged into a function and have the function exist and have a real number for a value. So, for the domain we need to avoid division by zero, square roots of negative numbers, logarithms of zero and logarithms of negative numbers (if not familiar with logarithms we’ll take a look at them a little later), *etc*. The range of a function is simply the set of all possible values that a function can take.

Let’s find the domain and range of a few functions.

Example 4 Find the domain and range of each of the following functions.

- \(f\left( x \right) = 5x - 3\)
- \(g\left( t \right) = \sqrt {4 - 7t} \)
- \(h\left( x \right) = - 2{x^2} + 12x + 5\)
- \(f\left( z \right) = \left| {z - 6} \right| - 3\)
- \(g\left( x \right) = 8\)

Show All SolutionsHide All Solutions

a \(f\left( x \right) = 5x - 3\) Show Solution

We know that this is a line and that it’s not a horizontal line (because the slope is 5 and not zero…). This means that this function can take on any value and so the range is all real numbers. Using “mathematical” notation this is,

\[{\rm{Range}}:\,\,\,\left( { - \infty ,\infty } \right)\]

This is more generally a polynomial and we know that we can plug any value into a polynomial and so the domain in this case is also all real numbers or,

\[{\rm{Domain}}:\,\,\, - \infty < x < \infty \hspace{0.25in}{\rm{or}} \hspace{0.25in} \left( { - \infty ,\infty } \right)\]

b \(g\left( t \right) = \sqrt {4 - 7t} \) Show Solution

This is a square root and we know that square roots are always positive or zero. We know then that the range will be,

\[{\rm{Range}}:\,\,\,\left[ {0,\infty } \right)\]

For the domain we have a little bit of work to do, but not much. We need to make sure that we don’t take square roots of any negative numbers, so we need to require that,

\[\begin{align*}4 - 7t & \ge 0\\ 4 & \ge 7t\\ \frac{4}{7} & \ge t \hspace{0.25in}\hspace{0.25in} \Rightarrow \hspace{0.25in}\hspace{0.25in}t \le \frac{4}{7}\end{align*}\]

The domain is then,

\[{\rm{Domain}}:\,\,\,t \le \frac{4}{7}\hspace{0.25in}{\rm{or }} \hspace{0.25in} \left( { - \infty ,\frac{4}{7}} \right]\]

c \(h\left( x \right) = - 2{x^2} + 12x + 5\) Show Solution

Here we have a quadratic, which is a polynomial, so we again know that the domain is all real numbers or,

\[{\rm{Domain}}:\,\,\, - \infty < x < \infty \hspace{0.25in} {\rm{or }} \hspace{0.25in} \left( { - \infty ,\infty } \right)\]

In this case the range requires a little bit of work. From an Algebra class we know that the graph of this will be a parabola that opens down (because the coefficient of the \({x^2}\) is negative) and so the vertex will be the highest point on the graph. If we know the vertex we can then get the range. The vertex is then,

\[x = - \frac{{12}}{{2\left( { - 2} \right)}} = 3\hspace{0.25in}y = h\left( 3 \right) = - 2{\left( 3 \right)^2} + 12\left( 3 \right) + 5 = 23\hspace{0.25in}\hspace{0.25in} \Rightarrow \hspace{0.25in}\left( {3,23} \right)\]

So, as discussed, we know that this will be the highest point on the graph or the largest value of the function and the parabola will take all values less than this, so the range is then,

\[{\rm{Range}}:\,\,\,\left( { - \infty ,23} \right]\]

d \(f\left( z \right) = \left| {z - 6} \right| - 3\) Show Solution

This function contains an absolute value and we know that absolute value will be either positive or zero. In this case the absolute value will be zero if \(z = 6\) and so the absolute value portion of this function will always be greater than or equal to zero. We are subtracting 3 from the absolute value portion and so we then know that the range will be,

\[{\rm{Range}}:\,\,\,\left[ { - 3,\infty } \right)\]

We can plug any value into an absolute value and so the domain is once again all real numbers or,

\[{\rm{Domain}}:\,\,\, - \infty < z < \infty \hspace{0.25in}{\rm{or }} \hspace{0.25in} \left( { - \infty ,\infty } \right)\]

e \(g\left( x \right) = 8\) Show Solution

This function may seem a little tricky at first but is actually the easiest one in this set of examples. This is a constant function and so any value of \(x\) that we plug into the function will yield a value of 8. This means that the range is a single value or,

\[{\rm{Range}}:\,\,\,8\]

The domain is all real numbers,

\[{\rm{Domain}}:\,\,\, - \infty < x < \infty \hspace{0.25in}{\rm{or }} \hspace{0.25in} \left( { - \infty ,\infty } \right)\]

In general, determining the range of a function can be somewhat difficult. As long as we restrict ourselves down to “simple” functions, some of which we looked at in the previous example, finding the range is not too bad, but for most functions it can be a difficult process.

Because of the difficulty in finding the range for a lot of functions we had to keep those in the previous set somewhat simple, which also meant that we couldn’t really look at some of the more complicated domain examples that are liable to be important in a Calculus course. So, let’s take a look at another set of functions only this time we’ll just look for the domain.

Example 5 Find the domain of each of the following functions.

- \(f\left( x \right) = \displaystyle \frac{{x - 4}}{{{x^2} - 2x - 15}}\)
- \(g\left( t \right) = \sqrt {6 + t - {t^2}} \)
- \(h\left( x \right) = \displaystyle \frac{x}{{\sqrt {{x^2} - 9} }}\)

Show All SolutionsHide All Solutions

a \(f\left( x \right) = \displaystyle \frac{{x - 4}}{{{x^2} - 2x - 15}}\) Show Solution

Okay, with this problem we need to avoid division by zero, so we need to determine where the denominator is zero which means solving,

\[{x^2} - 2x - 15 = \left( {x - 5} \right)\left( {x + 3} \right) = 0\hspace{0.25in} \Rightarrow \hspace{0.25in}x = - 3,\,\,x = 5\]

So, these are the only values of \(x\) that we need to avoid and so the domain is,

\[{\rm{Domain}}:\,\,\,{\mbox{All real numbers except}}\,\,x = - 3\,\,\ \mbox{&} \,\,x = 5\]

b \(g\left( t \right) = \sqrt {6 + t - {t^2}} \) Show Solution

In this case we need to avoid square roots of negative numbers and so need to require that,

\[6 + t - {t^2} \ge 0\hspace{0.25in}\hspace{0.25in} \Rightarrow \hspace{0.25in}\hspace{0.25in}{t^2} - t - 6 \le 0\]

Note that we multiplied the whole inequality by -1 (and remembered to switch the direction of the inequality) to make this easier to deal with. You’ll need to be able to solve inequalities like this more than a few times in a Calculus course so let’s make sure you can solve these.

The first thing that we need to do is determine where the function is zero and that’s not too difficult in this case.

\[{t^2} - t - 6 = \left( {t - 3} \right)\left( {t + 2} \right) = 0\]

So, the function will be zero at \(t = - 2\) and \(t = 3\). Recall that these points will be the only place where the function *may* change sign. It’s not required to change sign at these points, but these will be the only points where the function can change sign. This means that all we need to do is break up a number line into the three regions that avoid these two points and test the sign of the function at a single point in each of the regions. If the function is positive at a single point in the region it will be positive at all points in that region because it doesn’t contain the any of the points where the function may change sign. We’ll have a similar situation if the function is negative for the test point.

So, here is a number line showing these computations.

From this we can see that the only region in which the quadratic (in its modified form) will be negative is in the middle region. Recalling that we got to the modified region by multiplying the quadratic by a -1 this means that the quadratic under the root will only be positive in the middle region and so the domain for this function is then,

\[{\rm{Domain}}:\,\,\, - 2 \le t \le 3 \hspace{0.25in} {\rm{or }} \hspace{0.25in} \left[ { - 2,3} \right]\]

c \(h\left( x \right) = \displaystyle \frac{x}{{\sqrt {{x^2} - 9} }}\) Show Solution

In this case we have a mixture of the two previous parts. We have to worry about division by zero and square roots of negative numbers. We can cover both issues by requiring that,

\[{x^2} - 9 > 0\]

Note that we need the inequality here to be strictly greater than zero to avoid the division by zero issues. We can either solve this by the method from the previous example or, in this case, it is easy enough to solve by inspection. The domain is this case is,

\[{\rm{Domain}}:\,\,\,x < - 3\,\,\& \,\,x > 3\hspace{0.25in}{\rm{or }} \hspace{0.25in} \left( { - \infty , - 3} \right)\,\,\& \,\,\left( {3,\infty } \right)\]

The next topic that we need to discuss here is that of **function composition**. The composition of \(f(x)\) and \(g(x)\) is

\[\left( {f \circ g} \right)\left( x \right) = f\left( {g\left( x \right)} \right)\]

In other words, compositions are evaluated by plugging the second function listed into the first function listed. Note as well that order is important here. Interchanging the order will more often than not result in a different answer.

Example 6 Given \(f\left( x \right) = 3{x^2} - x + 10\) and \(g\left( x \right) = 1 - 20x\) find each of the following.

- \(\left( {f \circ g} \right)\left( 5 \right)\)
- \(\left( {f \circ g} \right)\left( x \right)\)
- \(\left( {g \circ f} \right)\left( x \right)\)
- \(\left( {g \circ g} \right)\left( x \right)\)

Show All SolutionsHide All Solutions

a \(\left( {f \circ g} \right)\left( 5 \right)\) Show Solution

In this case we’ve got a number instead of an \(x\) but it works in exactly the same way.

\[\begin{align*}\left( {f \circ g} \right)\left( 5 \right) & = f\left( {g\left( 5 \right)} \right)\\ & = f\left( { - 99} \right) = 29512\end{align*}\]

b \(\left( {f \circ g} \right)\left( x \right)\) Show Solution

\[\begin{align*}\left( {f \circ g} \right)\left( x \right) & = f\left( {g\left( x \right)} \right)\\ & = f\left( {1 - 20x} \right)\\ & = 3{\left( {1 - 20x} \right)^2} - \left( {1 - 20x} \right) + 10\\ & = 3\left( {1 - 40x + 400{x^2}} \right) - 1 + 20x + 10\\ & = 1200{x^2} - 100x + 12\end{align*}\]

Compare this answer to the next part and notice that answers are NOT the same. The order in which the functions are listed is important!

c \(\left( {g \circ f} \right)\left( x \right)\) Show Solution

\[\begin{align*}\left( {g \circ f} \right)\left( x \right) & = g\left( {f\left( x \right)} \right)\\ & = g\left( {3{x^2} - x + 10} \right)\\ & = 1 - 20\left( {3{x^2} - x + 10} \right)\\ & = - 60{x^2} + 20x - 199\end{align*}\]

And just to make the point one more time. This answer is different from the previous part. Order is important in composition.

d \(\left( {g \circ g} \right)\left( x \right)\) Show Solution

In this case do not get excited about the fact that it’s the same function. Composition still works the same way.

\[\begin{align*}\left( {g \circ g} \right)\left( x \right) & = g\left( {g\left( x \right)} \right)\\ & = g\left( {1 - 20x} \right)\\ & = 1 - 20\left( {1 - 20x} \right)\\ & = 400x - 19\end{align*}\]

Let’s work one more example that will lead us into the next section.

Example 7 Given \(f\left( x \right) = 3x - 2\) and \(g\left( x \right) = \frac{1}{3}x + \frac{2}{3}\) find each of the following.

- \(\left( {f \circ g} \right)\left( x \right)\)
- \(\left( {g \circ f} \right)\left( x \right)\)

Show All SolutionsHide All Solutions

a \(\left( {f \circ g} \right)\left( x \right)\) Show Solution

\[\begin{align*}\left( {f \circ g} \right)\left( x \right) & = f\left( {g\left( x \right)} \right)\\ & = f\left( {\frac{1}{3}x + \frac{2}{3}} \right)\\ & = 3\left( {\frac{1}{3}x + \frac{2}{3}} \right) - 2\\ & = x + 2 - 2\\ & = x\end{align*}\]

b \(\left( {g \circ f} \right)\left( x \right)\) Show Solution

\[\begin{align*}\left( {g \circ f} \right)\left( x \right) & = g\left( {f\left( x \right)} \right)\\ & = g\left( {3x - 2} \right)\\ & = \frac{1}{3}\left( {3x - 2} \right) + \frac{2}{3}\\ & = x - \frac{2}{3} + \frac{2}{3}\\ & = x\end{align*}\]

In this case the two compositions were the same and in fact the answer was very simple.

\[\left( {f \circ g} \right)\left( x \right) = \left( {g \circ f} \right)\left( x \right) = x\]

This will usually not happen. However, when the two compositions are both \(x\) there is a very nice relationship between the two functions. We will take a look at that relationship in the next section.

## FAQs

### How to pass Calc 1 final exam? ›

**How to Pass Calculus**

- Get Ready to Study. Effectively studying calculus can take a lot of time. ...
- Work with Other Students. You should try to make use of study groups if you can. ...
- Give Yourself Time. Make sure you give yourself enough time to study for your exams. ...
- Complete Practice Problems. ...
- Use Online Resources.

**Is calculus 1 a hard class? ›**

**Calculus is expected to be difficult; it should not be impossible**. But, too often, this course becomes a gatekeeper that pushes students out of careers in science, technology, engineering and math — or STEM — fields, especially women and marginalized students.

**What is the hardest part of Calc 1? ›**

In terms of issues affecting most students I believe **the concept of a variable and that of a function** are still the most difficult concepts for calculus 1 students, even though the concepts are introduced in precalculus. Writing a full and correct mathematical sentence is a topic most students struggle with.

**How do you ace every calc test? ›**

- Show what you know. ...
- Don't invent new math. ...
- Don't contradict yourself. ...
- Do the easy questions first. ...
- If you don't know how to do a problem, start by writing down relevant things that you know are true in general. ...
- Break difficult problems into manageable pieces. ...
- Know what a function is, and know what things are functions.

**What percentage of students fail calculus? ›**

The Mathematics Association of America (MAA) has reported the national average of unsuccessful Calculus 1 students to be **25%**.

**How long should I study calculus a day? ›**

You should be spending about 12 hours a week studying calculus; that's **2 hours a day**, 6 days a week. If you need to make adjustments in your academic or work schedules, do so now.

**What is the fail rate for Calc 1? ›**

The Mathematics Association of America (MAA) has reported the national average of unsuccessful Calculus 1 students to be **25%**.

**What is the lowest level of math in college? ›**

Entry-level math in college is considered the stepping stone to more advanced math. **Algebra 1, trigonometry, geometry, and calculus 1** are the basic math classes. Once you have successfully navigated through these courses, you can trail blazed through more advanced courses.

**What is the average grade for calculus 1 in college? ›**

We see that less than an A on any high school math course and less than 600 on the SAT or 26 on the ACT suggests a grade of **C or less**, on average, in college Calculus I. While C is a passing grade, it is a strong signal that there is considerable risk in continuing the pursuit of calculus.

**What math is higher than Calc? ›**

After completing Calculus I and II, you may continue to Calculus III, **Linear Algebra**, and Differential Equations. These three may be taken in any order that fits your schedule, but the listed order is most common.

### Is Calc 1 required for college? ›

**Calculus isn't actually required to get into most colleges**. Fewer than 5 percent of respondents to a survey—all at private institutions—said calculus was a blanket requirement for all or most majors.

**Why do people think Calc is hard? ›**

Most of the reasons students have difficulty learning calculus is because **they don't study daily after lessons, can't focus in class, have gaps in their math knowledge, and think learning calculus is a waste of time**. Here are the steps you can take to make calculus a breeze: Stay curious.

**How to master calculus 1? ›**

**Best Way to Learn Calculus!**

- Step 1 Begin with Other Basic Parts of Mathematics. ...
- Step 2 Know the Parts of Calculus. ...
- Step 3 Learn Calculus Formulae. ...
- Step 4 Know the Concept of Limits. ...
- Step 5 Understand the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. ...
- Step 6 Practice More and More Calculus Problems. ...
- Step 7 Ask your Doubts.

**Is it possible to get an A in calculus? ›**

**You will get an A in Calculus if and only if you do well on the exams**. This guide essentially helps you prepare for the exams.

**How do you get 100 on every math test? ›**

**5 Proven Tips on How to Score 100 Marks in Math Exams**

- Strategizing and Time Management.
- Practice With Mock Tests.
- Create a Formula Notebook.
- Positive Attitude.
- Strategies to Follow During the Exam.

**How many college students fail Calc 1? ›**

I have been amazed to discover that across the country it is typical that **25 or 30%** of students who take their first calculus course in college fail.

**Why is college calculus so hard? ›**

Calculus is widely regarded as a very hard math class, and with good reason. **The concepts take you far beyond the comfortable realms of algebra and geometry that you've explored in previous courses**. Calculus asks you to think in ways that are more abstract, requiring more imagination.

**What grade do most people learn calculus? ›**

Most US schools will start teaching calculus in the **11th or 12th grade**. Students can take Pre-Calculus in 11th grade and Calculus in 12th grade, or they can take other options such as Statistics or Trigonometry.

**What year do most people take calculus? ›**

Most STEM majors take calculus their **first year of college**, though over 75% of students enrolled in an introductory college calculus course took the subject in high school as well. The pressure to succeed in calculus is even greater in college than in high school.

**At what age should I learn calculus? ›**

Students can then move on Pre-Calculus in 11th grade and Calculus in **12th grade**, or they can take other options such as Statistics or Trigonometry.

### Is failing calculus normal? ›

Calculus is frequently the first college mathematics course a student takes, and so many students don't understand what level of performance they will be expected to achieve or how little time they will have for the course. Failure rates of 30%, or higher, are not unusual—though they are by no means desired.

**Is it okay to retake calculus? ›**

**Many students take Calculus I again at their universities, even if they have a passing score on the AP exam**. There are many reasons for this: some colleges insist (engineering programs in particular) and many medical schools demand that applicants take the course at a university.

**What is your GPA if you fail 1 class? ›**

**The failing grade will NOT calculate in your GPA, but it will still show on your transcript**. On your transcript, an "E" will show to the right of your failing grade to mark the course as "Excluded". On your transcript, an "I" will show to the right of the second time you took the class, marking it as "Included".

**How hard is it to get a 5 on BC calculus? ›**

Is it Easy to Get a 5 on AP Calc BC? At first glance, it may appear that it is easier to get a 5 on the AP Calculus BC exam than on the AP Calculus AB exam. In 2021, for example, **about 38% of Calculus BC test-takers received a 5 on the exam**, whereas only 18% of Calculus AB test-takers received a 5 that same year.

**What's the hardest math class you can take? ›**

In most cases, you'll find that **AP Calculus BC or IB Math HL** is the most difficult math course your school offers. Note that AP Calculus BC covers the material in AP Calculus AB but also continues the curriculum, addressing more challenging and advanced concepts.

**What branch of math is limit? ›**

**Calculus** mainly deals with the concepts of limits, derivatives and integrals of various functions.

**What college degree does not require math? ›**

Many high-paying careers nowadays require a bachelor's degree that doesn't require math. Bachelor's degrees in digital marketing, journalism, human resources, fine arts, and political science are bachelor's programs that yield lucrative professions.

**What is the passing rate of calculus? ›**

...

The Pass Rate.

AP Class/Exam | Pass Rate (3 or Higher) | Perfect Score (5) |
---|---|---|

AP Calculus AB | 61.4% | 19.5% |

All AP Classes | 71.13% | 19.57% |

**What grade is a 95% in college? ›**

Thus, **an A** is a 95, halfway between 90 and 100. An A- is a 91.25, halfway between 90 and 92.5. Etc. Grades between these are averages.

**What grade is a 59% in college? ›**

D - this is still a **passing grade**, and it's between 59% and 69%

### What is the most hardest math in the world? ›

**5 of the world's toughest unsolved maths problems**

- Separatrix Separation. A pendulum in motion can either swing from side to side or turn in a continuous circle. ...
- Navier–Stokes. ...
- Exponents and dimensions. ...
- Impossibility theorems. ...
- Spin glass.

**Is calc harder than linear algebra? ›**

**Calculus is the hardest mathematics subject** and only a small percentage of students reach Calculus in high school or anywhere else. Linear algebra is a part of abstract algebra in vector space. However, it is more concrete with matrices, hence less abstract and easier to understand.

**What is the highest math in college? ›**

Though **Math 55** bore the official title "Honors Advanced Calculus and Linear Algebra," advanced topics in complex analysis, point-set topology, group theory, and differential geometry could be covered in depth at the discretion of the instructor, in addition to single and multivariable real analysis as well as abstract ...

**What majors don t need calculus? ›**

**The following majors do not require Calculus**

- Anthropology.
- Art and Art History.
- Classics.
- Communication.
- English.
- Environmental Studies.
- Ethnic Studies.
- History.

**Do you need Calc 1 for med school? ›**

Summary: Students may feel compelled to take courses such as calculus even though **most medical schools do not require it** and even though it may not be related to either undergraduate academic plans or the core academic needs of the typical future physician.

**Is Calc 1 a requirement for med school? ›**

A: **Over 50 medical schools require one or two semesters of mathematics** (college math, calculus, and/or statistics). At many of these schools, any two math courses (including many statistics courses) would meet this requirement. Some medical schools will accept AP credit in math if it is listed on your transcript.

**Is calculus AB or BC harder? ›**

**AP Calculus BC is the more advanced of the two courses** and is designed to build off the skills students learned in AP Calculus AB. Because this is a very advanced course, students are expected to have a substantial math background. Learners may find it helpful to have taken AP Calculus AB before taking AP Calculus BC.

**Can an average person learn calculus? ›**

It is, however, not very easy for most people and takes practice to learn at a more rigorous level. **The average person could do calculus at the high school level with some difficulty, but at the collegiate level would struggle more.**

**Why do people fail calculus? ›**

The main reason students fail calculus is that **they don't have the necessary command of its prerequisites**—sometimes in spite of the deceptively good grades they were given in algebra and precalculus.

**Is calculus 1 a college level? ›**

As the Calculus I (Calculus 1) via Distance Calculus is **a real collegiate-level**, academic-credit-earning course, the AP Calculus exam is not required to earn the collegiate credit hours. Some students do not like high-stakes exams like the AP Calculus exam.

### Can you learn calculus in 5 hours? ›

**Calculus in 5 Hours covers roughly 75% of a first-semester course** and leaves out the extra material that adds little value in learning Calculus itself.

**How fast can I learn calculus 1? ›**

How Long Will It Take? Depending on your reason for learning calculus, the length in which you achieve your goal will vary. But if you want to gain a foundational understanding of the subject so that you can move on to more challenging courses, then give yourself **at least four to six months**.

**What percent of Americans can do calculus? ›**

If 85% of adults graduate high school, and only 16% of those take take calculus, then 13% of adults in the developed world study calculus.

**How many people pass calculus in college? ›**

Calculus Is the Gateway Course for STEM Majors

For the **66 percent** of students who pass calculus, they can go on to take more advanced coursework in their field.

**Do 11th graders take calculus? ›**

Students are usually given the choice to take either AP Calculus AB or AP Calculus BC in 11th or 12th grade in high school after the completion of precalculus. **Students are also allowed to take AP Calculus AB in 11th grade then AP Calculus BC in 12th grade**.

**Can you go over 100% mathematically? ›**

Explanation: Percentages are like fractions, parts of the whole. **You can't have more than 100 percent of a finite capacity**. If you give something everything you've got, that's 100% you've given.

**How do I always ace a math test? ›**

**Here are some of the top tips for how to study for math exams.**

- Start Early. Being prepared for a test starts with taking class seriously. ...
- Do Your Homework. ...
- Try a Planning Approach. ...
- Use Practice Tests and Exams. ...
- Use Flashcards. ...
- Practice Online. ...
- Try a Study Group. ...
- Set Rewards.

**How long should I study for math final? ›**

Begin studying for your Math final exam **at least two weeks before the exam**. Get all your tests, notes, homework, etc. in order. Schedule times each day to review the course material (see time management.)

**How can I pass my math final exam? ›**

**How to Study for a Math Test in 10 Easy Steps**

- Start Early. Being prepared for a test starts with taking class seriously. ...
- Do Your Homework. ...
- Try a Planning Approach. ...
- Use Practice Tests and Exams. ...
- Use Flashcards. ...
- Practice Online. ...
- Try a Study Group. ...
- Set Rewards.

**How can I pass my math final? ›**

...

**Math Final Exam Tips**

- Review your previous Math tests.
- Review your class notes.
- Review your homework exercises.
- Review the summary sheets that you've made.
- Review the highlights in your Math textbook.

### How hard is the Calc BC exam? ›

Although APs Calculus AB and BC are considered **fairly difficult**, students found them easy and enjoyable, especially with a strong grasp of the underlying concepts and regular consistent exam practice.

**Can you test out of calculus 1 in College? ›**

Testing Out of Courses Explained. **Yes you can test out of college courses**. You may already have with AP tests you have taken in High School.

**Can you fail Maths and still pass? ›**

**Yes, you can fail Maths and still pass Matric**. You can fail one subject and pass your Matric. However, you are advised to only pass your Matric with good marks. You need good results to further your education at a university.

**How to get a 100 on a math final exam? ›**

**5 Proven Tips on How to Score 100 Marks in Math Exams**

- Strategizing and Time Management.
- Practice With Mock Tests.
- Create a Formula Notebook.
- Positive Attitude.
- Strategies to Follow During the Exam.

**How do you ace a math test last minute? ›**

**7 Last-minute Tips for a Math Exam**

- Time Management.
- Consider the Hardest Questions.
- Conceptualize the Answer Before You Write.
- Draw a Diagram, Wherever Possible.
- Think About the Logic of Your Solution.
- Be Wary of Rounding and Units.
- Check your Work Towards the End.

**How do you get 100 in all exams? ›**

**20 Ways to Score Good Marks in Exams**

- Start with a Preparation Schedule. ...
- Focus on Proper Time Management. ...
- Know Your Weak Areas. ...
- 4. Make Sure Your Concepts are Clear. ...
- Prepare Your Study Notes. ...
- Explain the Lessons to Someone Else. ...
- Practice Sample Papers and Take Mock Tests. ...
- Identify the Scoring Sections.

**How many hours should you study for a final? ›**

If you have kept a good daily and weekly schedule, 15-20 hours should be about right for a mid-term, **20-30** for a final exam.

**How do you get an A * in Maths? ›**

**Below are the 7 steps to an A* in A-Level Maths.**

- 1) Know C1 well!
- 2) Review after each lesson!
- 3) Exam Style Questions.
- 4) Review again!
- 5) Past Papers are mocks – don't forget that!
- 6) Strive for every single mark!
- 7) Join ELITE Tuition.

**How many people get a 5 on AP Calc? ›**

Exam | 5 | 4 |
---|---|---|

AP Calculus AB | 20.4% | 16.1% |

AP Calculus BC | 41.2% | 15.6% |

AP Computer Science A | 27.3% | 20.4% |

AP Computer Science Principles | 11.4% | 21.0% |

**Is Calculus AB or BC harder? ›**

**AP Calculus BC is the more advanced of the two courses** and is designed to build off the skills students learned in AP Calculus AB. Because this is a very advanced course, students are expected to have a substantial math background. Learners may find it helpful to have taken AP Calculus AB before taking AP Calculus BC.

### Why am I struggling in calculus? ›

Most of the reasons students have difficulty learning calculus is because **they don't study daily after lessons, can't focus in class, have gaps in their math knowledge, and think learning calculus is a waste of time**. Here are the steps you can take to make calculus a breeze: Stay curious. Ask questions.

**Can you skip calculus 1? ›**

Even if I do well on the AP exam, can I really "skip" Calculus I (and II)? A: **YES**. In each calculus course, instructors cover the fundamentals of computer usage for those students who do not have any prior experience.